Per Peru

Peru, officially known as the Republic of Peru, is a country located in western South America. It is bordered by Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Peru is located in the central and western part of the continent, with diverse landscapes ranging from coastal deserts to the Andean mountains and the Amazon rainforest.



Peru exhibits a wide range of climates due to its diverse geography. The coastal region has a desert climate, characterized by arid conditions and minimal rainfall. The Andean region experiences a variety of climates depending on altitude, with colder temperatures and occasional snowfall at higher elevations. The Amazon basin has a tropical rainforest climate, with high humidity and heavy rainfall throughout the year.


Peru is renowned for its rich biodiversity, with a vast array of flora and fauna inhabiting its diverse ecosystems. The Amazon rainforest is home to countless species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, including jaguars, monkeys, macaws, and anacondas. The Andes mountains harbor unique species such as the Andean condor, vicuña, and spectacled bear. Along the coast, marine life thrives in the Pacific Ocean, with sea lions, dolphins, and numerous species of fish.

Longest Rivers

The Amazon River is the longest river in Peru and the world, flowing approximately 6,575 kilometers (4,086 miles) in total length. It originates in the Andes mountains of Peru and flows eastward through Brazil before emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. The Amazon River and its tributaries are vital for the region’s ecology and serve as a lifeline for countless plant and animal species.

Highest Mountains

Peru is home to some of the highest peaks in the Andes mountain range. The highest mountain in Peru and one of the highest in South America is Huascarán, which reaches an elevation of 6,768 meters (22,205 feet) above sea level. Other notable peaks include Salcantay, Ausangate, and Alpamayo, all of which attract mountaineers and outdoor enthusiasts from around the world.



The territory of present-day Peru has been inhabited for thousands of years, with evidence of human presence dating back to the Paleolithic era. The earliest known civilizations in Peru emerged along the coast, including the Norte Chico civilization, which flourished around 3000 BCE. These early cultures developed advanced agricultural techniques, intricate pottery, and monumental architecture.

Inca Empire

The Inca Empire, also known as Tawantinsuyu, rose to prominence in the 15th century, dominating much of western South America. At its peak, the Inca Empire stretched from present-day Ecuador to central Chile and encompassed diverse cultures and ethnicities. The Incas built vast cities, including the renowned Machu Picchu, and constructed an extensive network of roads and bridges. However, the empire was eventually conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century.

Colonial Period

Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, arrived in Peru in 1532 and quickly overthrew the Inca Empire. Peru became part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, which included much of South America’s western coast. The Spanish exploited Peru’s wealth of natural resources, including gold and silver mines, and imposed their language, religion, and culture on the indigenous population. Despite resistance from indigenous groups, Spanish colonial rule endured for nearly three centuries.

Independence and Modern Age

Peru declared independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of liberator José de San Martín and others. However, internal conflicts and power struggles plagued the newly independent nation, leading to periods of instability and upheaval. Peru experienced numerous wars, territorial disputes, and political upheavals throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, including the War of the Pacific (1879-1884) and the Shining Path insurgency (1980-2000). In recent decades, Peru has made strides towards democracy and economic development, though challenges such as poverty, inequality, and corruption persist.



As of the latest available data, Peru has a population of approximately 33 million people. The population is diverse, with a mix of indigenous peoples, mestizos (mixed European and indigenous ancestry), and people of European, African, and Asian descent. The majority of Peruvians live in urban areas, particularly along the coast and in the capital city of Lima.

Ethnicity and Language

Peru is a multicultural society with a rich tapestry of ethnicities and languages. Indigenous peoples make up a significant portion of the population, with diverse ethnic groups such as the Quechua, Aymara, and Ashaninka. Spanish is the official language of Peru, though many indigenous languages, such as Quechua and Aymara, are also spoken, particularly in rural areas.


The predominant religion in Peru is Roman Catholicism, which was introduced by the Spanish during the colonial period. However, indigenous beliefs and traditions remain strong, particularly in rural and indigenous communities. Peruvians often practice a syncretic form of Catholicism that incorporates elements of indigenous spirituality and ritual.

Administrative Divisions and Population

Peru is divided into 25 regions (regiones) and the province of Lima. Each region is further subdivided into provinces and districts. The following is a list of Peru’s administrative divisions along with their populations:

  1. Lima – Population: 10.8 million
  2. Piura – Population: 2.1 million
  3. La Libertad – Population: 2.1 million
  4. Cajamarca – Population: 1.4 million
  5. Ancash – Population: 1.2 million
  6. Arequipa – Population: 1.3 million
  7. Lambayeque – Population: 1.2 million
  8. Callao – Population: 1.1 million
  9. Cusco – Population: 1.2 million
  10. Puno – Population: 1.2 million
  1. Junín – Population: 1.4 million
  2. Huánuco – Population: 800,000
  3. Ica – Population: 1.1 million
  4. Ucayali – Population: 500,000
  5. San Martín – Population: 900,000
  6. Ayacucho – Population: 700,000
  7. Huancavelica – Population: 450,000
  8. Amazonas – Population: 400,000
  9. Madre de Dios – Population: 160,000
  10. Pasco – Population: 300,000
  11. Tacna – Population: 400,000
  12. Tumbes – Population: 250,000
  13. Moquegua – Population: 200,000
  14. Loreto – Population: 1 million
  15. Apurímac – Population: 400,000
  16. Lima Province – Population: 10.8 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Lima
  2. Arequipa
  3. Trujillo
  4. Chiclayo
  5. Piura
  6. Iquitos
  7. Cusco
  8. Chimbote
  9. Huancayo
  10. Tacna

Education Systems

Education in Peru is overseen by the Ministry of Education and is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 16. The education system is divided into three levels: primary education, secondary education, and higher education. Peru has several universities and higher education institutions, including the National University of San Marcos, the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, and the National University of Engineering.



Peru has several airports, with the main international airport being Jorge Chávez International Airport in Lima. Other major airports include Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport in Cusco, and Rodríguez Ballón International Airport in Arequipa.


Peru has a limited railway network, with a total length of approximately 1,900 kilometers (1,180 miles). The railway system primarily serves tourist destinations such as Machu Picchu and transportation of goods in certain regions.


Peru has an extensive road network, with a total length of approximately 141,000 kilometers (87,613 miles). The country’s highways connect urban centers, rural areas, and neighboring countries, facilitating transportation and commerce.


Peru has several major ports along its Pacific coastline, serving as important hubs for maritime transportation and trade. The five major ports include:

  1. Callao Port
  2. Paita Port
  3. Matarani Port
  4. Salaverry Port
  5. Ilo Port

Country Facts

  • Population: 33 million
  • Capital: Lima
  • Official Languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
  • Religion: Roman Catholicism
  • Race: Mestizo, Quechua, Aymara, other indigenous groups, European, African, Asian
  • Currency: Peruvian Sol (PEN)
  • ISO Country Code: PE
  • International Calling Code: +51
  • Top-Level Domain: .pe