Geography of Harper County, Oklahoma

Geography of Harper County, Oklahoma

Harper County is a picturesque county located in the northwestern part of the state of Oklahoma, United States. Known for its wide-open spaces, rolling plains, and rich agricultural heritage, Harper County offers a diverse landscape that encompasses prairies, farmland, and river valleys. Covering an area of approximately 1,020 square miles, Harper County is home to several charming towns and communities, each with its own unique character.

Location and Borders

According to Photionary, Harper County is situated in the northwestern corner of Oklahoma, bordered by the state of Kansas to the north, the counties of Woods to the east, Woodward to the southeast, Ellis to the south, and Beaver to the west. The county seat is the city of Buffalo, while other prominent communities include Laverne, May, and Rosston.

Topography and Terrain

The topography of Harper County is characterized by its gently rolling plains, with elevations ranging from around 1,500 feet to 2,000 feet above sea level. The county lies within the Great Plains region of North America and is part of the High Plains physiographic province.

The landscape of Harper County is predominantly agricultural, with vast stretches of farmland and pastureland dominating the scenery. The terrain is relatively flat, with occasional hills and ridges interspersed throughout the county.

One notable geological feature in Harper County is the Cimarron River, which flows from west to east through the southern part of the county. The Cimarron River Valley is home to fertile bottomlands and provides habitat for a variety of wildlife species.


Harper County experiences a semi-arid climate, with four distinct seasons characterized by hot summers, cold winters, and relatively low precipitation throughout the year. The region’s climate is influenced by its inland location and its position on the leeward side of the Rocky Mountains.

Summer temperatures in Harper County typically range from the 80s to 90s Fahrenheit (around 27-32°C), with occasional heatwaves bringing temperatures into the 100s Fahrenheit (around 38°C) or higher. Humidity levels are generally low during the summer months, making the weather feel more comfortable despite the high temperatures.

Winter temperatures are colder, with average highs in the 30s to 40s Fahrenheit (around -1 to 4°C) and lows in the teens to 20s Fahrenheit (around -7 to -1°C). Snowfall is infrequent but not uncommon during the winter months, with light accumulations typically melting within a day or two.

Rivers and Waterways

The Cimarron River is the largest river in Harper County, flowing from west to east through the southern part of the county. The river provides habitat for fish and wildlife and supports recreational activities such as fishing, boating, and camping.

In addition to the Cimarron River, Harper County is also home to several smaller rivers, creeks, and streams, which drain into the Cimarron River and its tributaries. These waterways provide valuable water resources for agriculture and wildlife and offer opportunities for outdoor recreation.

Lakes and Reservoirs

While Harper County does not have any large natural lakes, the region is home to several reservoirs and man-made lakes that provide water for irrigation, recreation, and wildlife habitat. One notable reservoir in Harper County is Canton Lake, located near the town of Laverne, which offers fishing, boating, and camping opportunities for residents and visitors alike.

Other smaller lakes and reservoirs in Harper County include Wolf Creek Lake and Lake Harper, each of which provides a tranquil setting for outdoor recreation and relaxation.

Parks and Recreation Areas

Harper County is home to several parks, wildlife refuges, and recreational areas that showcase the region’s natural beauty and provide opportunities for outdoor adventure. One notable destination in Harper County is the Black Kettle National Grassland, located in the southeastern part of the county, which offers hiking, birdwatching, and wildlife viewing opportunities.

Other popular destinations in Harper County include the Canton Lake Wildlife Management Area, which provides habitat for a variety of bird species and offers opportunities for hunting and fishing, and the Buffalo City Park, which features playgrounds, picnic areas, and walking trails for residents and visitors to enjoy.

Agriculture and Economy

Agriculture is the primary economic driver in Harper County, with the fertile soils and favorable climate supporting a variety of crops and livestock. Wheat, corn, soybeans, and alfalfa are among the primary crops grown in the county, while cattle ranching and dairy farming are also important industries.

In addition to agriculture, Harper County has a diverse economy that includes oil and gas production, manufacturing, and tourism. The county is home to several oil fields and natural gas wells, which provide employment opportunities for residents and contribute to the local economy.

Historical Sites and Landmarks

Harper County has a rich history dating back to the early 19th century, with several historic sites and landmarks that tell the story of the region’s past. One notable landmark in Harper County is the Black Kettle Monument, located near the town of Cheyenne, which commemorates the Battle of Washita River, a significant event in the history of the Cheyenne people.

Other notable historical sites in Harper County include the Alabaster Caverns State Park, which features a network of gypsum caves and is the largest natural gypsum cave in the world open to the public, and the Fort Supply Historic Site, which preserves the remains of a 19th-century military outpost.


Harper County, Oklahoma, is a region of natural beauty, rich history, and abundant opportunities for outdoor recreation. From its rolling plains and scenic river valleys to its historic landmarks and cultural attractions, the county offers something for everyone to enjoy.

Whether exploring the trails of Black Kettle National Grassland, fishing on Canton Lake, or experiencing the region’s agricultural heritage firsthand, visitors to Harper County are sure to be captivated by its charm and hospitality. With its diverse geography, vibrant communities, and strong sense of history, Harper County is a hidden gem in the heart of Oklahoma, inviting travelers to discover its treasures and create lasting memories.