The mention of technology fast charging for smartphones has become quite common lately. You have probably already heard about the Quick Charge, fast charge or dash charge, which can charge the battery of a smartphone for about 60% in just 30 minutes. So, exactly how do they work?
Understanding the Capacity of the Battery
Most of the devices use lithium-ion batteries. To understand how these technologies work, it is essential to know the basic principle of how the battery of a smartphone is loaded. Most of the smartphones today use a type of battery called lithium-ion (Li-ion). A Li-ion battery is composed of a positive electrode and negative and an electrolyte between them. The lithium ion within the battery moves from one electrode to the other, allowing the battery to be in a state of charging (storing energy) or discharging (wasting energy). The capacity of the battery is measured in milliamps per hour (mAh)
Great, we have some information about how to work the lithium ion batteries! The next question is how exactly do we determine the speed at which a lithium ion battery is charged. You are probably familiar with the classification system used to evaluate the capacity of the battery of a smartphone. Otherwise, it is the number that uses mAh (milliamps per hour) as its unit of measure. A higher number means greater capacity, which translates into longer battery life.
A battery of 6000mAh will last twice as long than a battery of 3000mAh. The same applies to the load: the higher the capacity of a lithium ion battery, the longer it takes to fully charge. The amount of current that the charger can produce is usually the determining factor of the speed with which a battery can be charged, and that is why a charger for the tablet that can generate 2 amps will charge two times faster than a charger of smartphone able to generate 1 amp.
Another important nature of a lithium ion battery is that it does not load in a linear manner. It is easier to charge the battery when it is almost empty in comparison with the loading when it is almost full. Think of it as tidying up a suitcase: it is more difficult to put things when they are filled.
As mentioned, the increased current used to charge a battery decreases the loading time, but only up to a certain point. A lithium ion battery can only absorb a certain current, and increase it beyond the limit results only in the energy dissipated in the form of heat. Therefore, if you use a charger for the tablet for charging a smartphone, it will generally be loaded more quickly, but also will be heated more quickly.
Charge Phone Faster: the Basic Principle
With all these things in mind, we can return to the question of how the technologies of fast-loading work. As the name indicates, allows for a fast charging of the battery of a smartphone. This is usually done by increasing the power of a loader, increasing the voltage or the current that it provides to the device. You can ask if it is safe to increase the amount of energy that we have in our devices. Theoretically, it is not safe, but with the right hardware to monitor and verify the power and the temperature, things get more secure.
Smartphones today are smart when it comes to loading. Most of the devices currently has a chip embedded to monitor the temperature of the battery and the amount of energy that passes while charging the phone. This allows the smartphone to shorten the smart way or to stop receiving power from the charger when the battery is full or if the battery gets too hot. That is why, when you leave the phone to charge, you will notice that the charger and the battery heat up during charging, and once completed, the two will no longer be heated.
In addition, these new technologies fast charging can provide more than half of the capacity of the battery in less than an hour. They work by pressing the maximum power that the device can withstand to ensure that the battery is charging at its maximum rate. As previously mentioned, when the battery is in low capacity, it is easier to upload it, since the lithium ion battery has more freedom to move. This nature is what the manufacturers use for a faster loading.
The Technologies of Fast Charging Improves
The technology Quick Charge, for example takes advantage of the different outputs of energy mainly adjustments of voltage for the charger, depending on the current capacity of the battery of the device. Thanks to a special chip installed in the device and in the charger, this can adjust the active power output, depending on the needs of the device. Therefore, with capabilities lower, it offers the greatest power that the device can withstand safely, and, to the extent that the battery is charged, the device communicates with the charger and reports that it provides less energy.
The Quick Charge will adding new features over time: compliance with the USB Type-C and USB Power Delivery; a more recent version of technologies that allow the device to determine the power level of an ideal to be prompted by the charger; and the inclusion of the Dual Charge, which adds an on chip power management, secondary device for best thermal dissipation and loading more efficient.
Even the few smartphones that support the technology have been released, updates are still coming out, improving the feature Dual Charge station with the addition of Balancing Heat Smart, which eliminates hot spots by moving the chain by way of cold available during the loading. The latest versions has been monitoring also the temperature levels of the case and the connector. The additional layer of protection helps prevent damage due to overheating and short-circuits. In brief, we can see how the artificial intelligence acting on the system of management of the charging of smartphones and tablets.
To Speed Up the Load of the Battery and the Charging of High Current
In this technology, the devices do this by providing high amounts of current (around 4A) during the loading. The level decreases as the device is loaded. Again, thanks to the special chips installed in the device and in the charger, the devices that support these technologies can be loaded more quickly.
The Quick Charge station and the loading of the high current can be charging technologies fast, but have a few differences. The Quick Charge uses especially the use of voltages higher, while the loading of the high current use high load current. The loading of the high current also ensures that the charger receives the greater part of the heat generated during the charging, which is not the case of the Quick Charge, and both the charger and the device heat up.
As the phone does not heats up too much, the devices with the charging of high current can be used with fast load without problems. In addition, the technology of fast charging is proprietary, which means that you will need the charger and cable that came with the device to use it, in addition to having a device compatible with the technology, of course.
Fast Loading Requires Specific Hardware
Remember that, to use this technology, you will need a smartphone that supports a technology fast charging and a charger and / or cable certificate. If you are using a smartphone more sophisticated than has been released in the last few years, it is likely that your device support fast charging.
To sum up: the fast charging is technically just a more intelligent way of charging that takes advantage of the way lithium ion batteries work. With all the pre-requirements (a smartphone/tablet and charger-compatible) you will not be stuck near a wall outlet for a few hours only to receive a large amount of energy in your device. Until better battery technology to be released, the rapid charging may be the only solution that we have for a while.
You have a phone with fast charging? How does it work? It satisfies their needs for a more efficient loading?