Derived from the Italian term bozzetto, the concept of sketch refers to the scheme or project that serves as a sketch for any work. It is a guide that allows a general idea to be dumped and displayed on paper before arriving at the work that will yield a final result.
In general, a sketch (defined as a layout in the English language) is a schematic illustration that lacks detail and, in most cases, does not have terminations. Its objective is to symbolize ideas, thoughts or concepts, without worrying about aesthetics. For this reason, it is generally performed on any kind of sheet and without the need for auxiliary drawing instruments.
In this sense, we can state that usually when we talk about a sketch we are referring to a drawing that is made in pencil, on paper, freehand and without going into any type of detail, it is simply basic ideas to undertake the subsequent work definitive.
Thus, in this way, we find graphic documents of this type in fields such as, for example, fashion. And it is common that designers and couturiers are in charge of expressing in a prior way the ideas that arise in order to then undertake in a much more exhaustive and complex way the set of their clothing that will make up the models of their new collections.
We can also emphasize that in the world of comics it is also common for cartoonists, once they receive the scripts of the stories, to be in charge of carrying out these sketches to establish the best way to represent what are the episodes that are told in the plots.
The sketches can be considered as a preliminary study of other kinds of works. For example: a drawing can constitute the first step of a work of architecture or a sculpture.
In the field of painting, a sketch can mark the beginning of the making of a mural. On the other hand, a sketch can be transformed into a drawing with a higher degree of elaboration that reproduces forms of nature or is inspired by a work of art, with the intention of facilitating the study of its composition and structure.
Fortunately today we have the opportunity to enjoy sketches by some of the most important pictorial authors in history through exhibitions in different museums around the world. This would be the case, for example, of Leonardo da Vinci or Francisco de Goya.
In the case of this last Spanish painter, sketches of frescoes such as El Milagro de San Antonio de Padua, which he made for the Ermita de San Antonio in Madrid, or paintings such as Santa Justa and Santa Rufina have been preserved to this day.
There are three main types of sketches: the rough, the comprehensive and the dummy.
The rough sketch supposes the representation on paper of a first idea, devoid of details and technical content. The comprehensive sketch includes certain adjustments to the idea in order to improve its quality and make it more understandable. For this, various technical tools are used. Finally, the dummy sketch is characterized by having a high degree of precision and quality in all the visual effects that will be used for the final work.
It should be noted that a sketch can also be a draft of a written document, with single words or phrases that, later on, will allow to constitute a developed text.